Q.What is the Asian Apicultural Association?
A.The Asian Apicultural Association (AAA) was founded in 1992 to help researchers, beekeepers and those involved in developmental businesses in Asia share information about honey bees and apiculture. AAA has held eight meetings so far (see below), with its ninth meeting scheduled to be held this year in Hangzhou, in China’s Zhejiang province.
AAA has held a total of eight meetings in the cities listed below.
First: Bangkok, Thailand (1992)
Second: Yogyakarta, Indonesia (1994)
Third: Hanoi, Vietnam (1996)
Fourth: Katmandu, Nepal (1998)
Fifth: Chiang Mai, Thailand (2000)
Sixth: Bangalore, India (2002)
Seventh: Los Banos, the Philippines (2004)
Eighth: Perth, Australia (2006)
Q.How can I measure the apisin content in honey?
A.You can find out the apisin content by measuring the honey’s protein content using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).
Q.What is royal jelly?
A.Royal jelly is a translucent, milky white substance secreted from the hypopharyngeal glands and head glandular system including mandibular glands located in the heads of worker bees. Worker bees can produce royal jelly for only a limited period between the sixth and twelfth days after birth, during which time they are referred to as “nursing bees.” Fed with this royal jelly, the queen bee lays 2,000 to 3,000 eggs a day. The average lifespan of queen bees (three to four years) is much longer than that of the worker bees (thirty to forty-five days), which do not consume royal jelly as their main food source.
Royal jelly is a natural substance containing a balanced mix of many of the things important for human health, such as proteins (including high quality amino acids), sugars and fatty acids as well as a variety of vitamins and minerals. Some of its nutritional value and pharmaceutical functions have been identified over long years of studies, including some clinical experiments. Royal jelly is now increasingly recognized as a safe, valuable and healthy supplement for humans.
The main medical benefits that have been identified from consuming royal jelly include: accelerated wound healing1, tumor prevention2, 3, serum cholesterol and lipid reduction4, increased blood flow and decreased blood pressure5, anti-aging effect on the genital center6, antibacterial effects7, 8, promotion of weight gain and tissue growth9 and a reduction in the side effects of radiation therapy and chemotherapy10, 11, 12.
Q.What is apisin?
A.Apisin, a glycoprotein contained in royal jelly, consists of six sub-units with a molecular weight of 55,000 each. Apisin is recognized to promote the growth of new cells13.
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2 Townsend G. F. et al., Nature, 183, 1270-1271 (1959)
3 Toyoyuki Tamura et al., Folia Pharmacologica Japonica, 89, 73-80 (1987)
4 Shizuo Nakajin et al., Journal of Natural Medicines, 36(1), 65-69 (1982)
5 Masato Shinoda et al., Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan, 98(2), 139-145 (1978)
6 Katsuji Kushima et al., Geriatric Diseases, 6(1), 27-30 (1962)
7 Murray S. Blum et al., Science, 130, 452-453 (1959)
8 S. Fujiwara et al., J. Biol. Chem., 265(19), 11333-11337 (1990)
9 Junnosuke Kawamura, Journal of the Showa Medical Association, 20(10), 93-99 (1961)
10 Yutaka Emori et al., Biotherapy, 12(2), 313-319 (1998)
11 Yutaka Emori et al., Biotherapy, 12(8), 1143-1148 (1998)
12 Hiroshi Yoshizaki, Clinical Report, 9, 23-28 (1975)
13 Masami Yonekura, Honeybee Science, 19(1), 15-22 (1998)